Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Fagonia Arabica and. Fagonia arabica L., belonging to the family Zygophyallaceae, commonly known as Dhamaso in Gujarati, Ustarkar in Hindi, Dhanvyas in. Fagonia Arabica is one such herb, that has multiple benefits and has its roots strongly fixed in history. This herb was discovered long back and has been used .
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Fagonia faagonia is an ethno-pharmacologically important Ayurvedic herb known to have many medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. However, its antioxidant potential has not been investigated so far. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential of F. Chemical ischemia was induced through exposing the cells to uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation sodium azide 5.
Proximate and Mineral Constituents of Medicinal Herb Fagonia arabica – SciAlert Responsive Version
The ischemic injury was characterized by impaired energy status as indicated by decreased ATP levels in the cells, accompanied by increased lactic acid content. Both the changes favourably responded to F.
This study reveals the antioxidant potential of F. Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death fagoniia after coronary heart diseases and cancer 12. With an increasing population of elderly people, stroke is becoming a major health issue worldwide. Cerebral ischemia is most often brought about fagnoia interruption of the blood flow to the brain producing hypoxia and hypoglycemia resulting in neuronal cell death 3. Since neurons are highly vulnerable to hypoxia and hypoglycemia, they sustain irreversible damage even if supply of oxygen and glucose is blocked for a short time.
Cerebral ischemia triggers a complex series of biochemical and molecular mechanisms which impairs the neurologic functions through breakdown of cellular integrates which is mediated by excitotoxic glutamatergic signalling, ionic imbalance and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species ROS and RNS generation 45. Although the duration of ischemia is an important determinant of subsequent damage, reperfusion does also play a prominent role in the neuronal damage 5.
A sudden supply of oxygen and glucose to starved tissues results in the production of ROS and RNS that further potentiates the cell death. One of the myriad of events following cerebral ischemia is oxidative stress which poses a threat to the brain environment 6.
The brain has a arabicz of characteristics which make it especially susceptible to free radical injury. Brain lipids are highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAand many regions of the brain viz. Both PUFA and iron increase the susceptibility of brain cell membranes to lipid peroxidation 7. ROS has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders and brain dysfunctions. Cellular functions are critically altered with increased production of free radicals arabixa brain injury, which are generated through different cellular pathways 8.
At the present state of knowledge, treatment of ischemic brain injury is far from adequate In Ayurveda, the Indian traditional health care system, many herbal formulations have been used as a neuroprotective agent 11 – Since long, many herbal formulations have been in use for various ailments like hematological and hepatic disorders, arabuca inflammatory conditions 14 It is a green shrub of 1 to 3 feet height found on calcareous rocks distributed throughout the Mediterranean region of Africa, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan Different parts of this herb have been used to cure various ailments, namely hematological, neurological, endocrinological and inflammatory disorders 11 – 1317 – It has also been reported to contain wide variety of antioxidants and triterpenoids saponins 20 Its infusion is effective as aarbica cooling agent in stomatitis.
It is known to purify blood and also acts as a deobstruent It is also used for skin diseases, small pox and for endothermic reaction in the body The twigs of the plant are used as remedy for snake bite and also applied externally as paste on tumours and for the swellings of neck 1617 The objectives of this investigation were to determine the total polyphenol contents and characterize the free radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing capabilities of F.
The neuroprotective activity of F. All the chemicals used were of analytical grade. The CaKR buffer pH 7. As described, the sample herbal extract was authenticated for their correct botanical identity. Differentiation media was changed on every second day.
The chemical ischemia was induced in PC12 cells by both metabolic inhibitors according to procedures described previously 24 Once the monolayer was formed, the incubation media was removed and ischemic medium CaKR buffer containing sodium azide and 2-DG was introduced to cells for 2 h.
The TPC was measured using the method des cribed by Wong et al. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of each sample was determined colorimetrically, according to the method described by Leong and Shui The arbaica absorbance of the DPPH in methanol was measured at nm and did not change throughout the period of assay. The change in absorbance at nm was measured after 30 min.
The ability to reduce ferric ions was measured using a arabic version of the method described by Benzie and Strain The increase in absorbance at nm was measured after 30 min. The reaction mixture was allowed fagohia stand at room temperature for 6 faginia and the absorbance was recorded immediately at nm. Appropriate solvent blanks were run in each assay. The percent of inhibition of absorbance at nm was calculated and plotted as a function of concentration of trolox for the standard reference data.
The absorbance of the resulting oxidized solution was compared to that of the calibrated trolox standard.
After reperfusion, the reperfusion media was collected and centrifuged at rpm for 10 min. The supernatant was collected and the activity of leaked intracellular LDH was measured using a raabica kit Merck India Ltd.
Cellular viability of the cells was measured by MTT assay This kit utilizes the bioluminescence for the rapid detection of the ATP levels. The enzyme luciferase catalyzes the formation of light from ATP and luciferin. The light produced was measured on a plate reader at nm. Standard curve was prepared using different concentrations of ATP 0. Lactic acid concentration in the lysed cells and exposure media was measured by commercial diagnostic kit Randox, UK.
In short, lactate in the presence of oxygen is converted to pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction is catalyzed by lactate oxidase.
Fagonia arabica in Flora of Pakistan @
The hydrogen peroxide in arwbica presence of peroxidase reacts with 4-amino antipyrine and n- ethyl- N – 2-hydroxysulphopropyl m-toluidine to yield a purple colored product that was measured spectrophotometrically at nm. After ischemia-reperfusion photomicrographs were taken with the help of Inverted microscope Leica DMIRB to find out the morphological changes after ischemia.
Correlation and faognia analysis of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was carried out using SigmaPlot Software. The TPC value of F. B Total polyphenol content of F. The stable radical DPPH has been used widely for the determination of primary antioxidant activity i. A standard curve was prepared using different concentrations of trolox 4. To determine the effect of F. Similarly, the membrane integrity of the cells was found to araabica maintained when cells were treated with F.
ATP levels in PC12 cells after 2 h of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion.
Effect of Fagonia Arabica (Dhamasa) on in vitro thrombolysis
Total lactic acid content of Arabifa cells after 2 h of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. In this study, we have investigated the effect of F. Both sodium azide and 2-DG induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner data not shown. The induction of chemical ischemia followed by post-incubation reperfusion in normal medium for 24 h inflicted lethal damage to the cells, accompanied by decrease in cellular ATP content. A significant increase in glutamate levels in the supernatant of the incubation buffer has been reported after the induction of chemical ischemia in rat cortical cultures Moreover, the chemical ischemia induced neurotoxicity was prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists MK and Daminophosphonovaleric acid APV indicating the suitability of chemical ischemia in screening of neuroprotective agents 32 There is currently an upsurge of interest in phytochemicals as potential new cagonia of natural antioxidants.
The goal is to use them in foods and pharmaceutical preparations adabica replace synthetic antioxidants 3435 Most antioxidants isolated from higher plants are polyphenols. In vascular plants, more than phenolic and polyphenolic compounds have been identified e. A wide range of low and high molecular weight plant polyphenols with antioxidant properties has been studied The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is mainly due to their redox properties, which allow them to act as reducing agents, hydrogen donators, and singlet oxygen quenchers.
In addition, they have metal-chelating potential Moreover, phenolic compounds show different biological activities as antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-allergic, estrogenic, and immune-stimulating agents Many triterpenoids and saponins and their chemical structures has been reported from different species of genus Fagonia 20 Most of the flavonol glycosides have been isolated from various Egyptian Fagonia species and their phylogenetic affinities have also been investigated 42 – Other constituents, such as docosyl docosanoate from hexane extract and water-soluble proteins from aqueous extract of air-dried F.
The antimicrobial activity arabicz its flavonoid compounds has been explored previously, 53 while the nutritive values of it and of other species growing wild in the Rajasthan region of India, have also been evaluated Very recently the thrombolytic activity of F.
Antioxidant activity of F. Considerable amount of total polyphenols was measured in F.
arabic The model of scavenging the stable DPPH radical is a widely used method for evaluating antioxidant activities in a relatively short time compared with other methods. The effect of antioxidants on DPPH radical scavenging was thought to be due to their hydrogen donating ability Antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols may be more efficient reducing agents for ferric iron but some may not scavenge DPPH free radicals as efficiently due to steric hindrance.
Hypoxia stimulates anaerobic glycolysis and results in enhanced lactate production, resulting in lactic acidosis. A significant rise fahonia the lactic acid concentration was observed after 2 h of ischemia in PC12 cells.
Removal of lactic acid from the extracellular space is largely due to an uptake mechanism, which is an ATP dependent process. Ischemia causes ATP depletion within 5 min. Several studies are going on throughout the world to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically potent with low profile of side effects.
Ayurveda, the oldest medical system in the world, provides lots of lead to find active and therapeutically useful compounds from plants. Additional work in this area is currently underway to find out the active components of F arabica and their mode of action.